march on versailles

Permanently disgraced, Louis was forced to accept a constitution more denuding of his kingship than any previously put forward. His return was touted as a momentous turning point in the Revolution, by some even as its end. [4] Now their attention was turned to the creation of a permanent constitution. [42] The violence boiled over into savagery as Tardivet's head was shorn off and raised aloft on a pike. The Women's March on Versailles in October 1789 is often credited with forcing the royal court and family to move from the traditional seat of government in Versailles to Paris, a major and early turning point in the French Revolution. ARSENAL, attempted d... ... in the rain, occupies Tennis-Court, scene there, joined by clergy, doings on King’s speech, ratified by King, cannon pointed at, regrets Necker, afte..., what it can do, Night of Pentecost, Left and Right side, raises money, on the Veto, Fifth October, women, in Paris Riding-Hall, on deficit, assign... ...ur, after King’s capture. As the Revolution progressed, he was hounded into exile by the radical leadership. Citation information The spiral of decline in the king's fortunes culminated at the guillotine in 1793. The royal procession, accompanied by Assembly deputies and the crowd, departed Versailles later that day. google_ad_slot = "6183751590"; Are you an author? The royal court provided the regiment with a welcome banquet which, according to eyewitness accounts, became progressively rowdier as the soldiers consumed more wine. Before long the women were ransacking Paris' city hall, the Hôtel de Ville, for weapons and intent on marching to Versailles itself, 13 km away. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. [57], Even while the women were marching, suspicious eyes looked upon Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, already behind the July uprisings, as being somehow responsible for the event. The Women's March on Versailles in October 1789 is often credited with forcing the royal court and family to move from the traditional seat of government in Versailles to Paris, a major and early turning point in the French Revolution. Three days later the so-called “women’s march” on Versailles would force Louis XVI to relocate to Paris and spell the end of the palace as a royal residence. The women had come to say that Paris was short of bread. [2] Boisterous and energetic, they recruited (or impressed into service) more and more followers as they surged out of Paris in the autumn rain. The crowd besieged the palace and, in a dramatic and violent confrontation, they successfully pressed their demands upon King Louis XVI. Famine was a real and ever-present dread for the lower strata of the Third Estate, and rumors of an "aristocrats' plot" to starve the poor were rampant and readily believed. By the time they reached Versailles, they had roughly 6000 people. After stopping ten days at Gevries, the two armies sepa- rated and marched. The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. Their demonstrations quickly became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France. The units had a history of cooperation and a military sense of mutual respect, and Lafayette, who had been snatching a few hours of sleep in his exhaustion, awoke to make the most of it. Then, with a sullen poignancy, he asked for a history of the deposed Charles I of England to be brought from the library. [50] A sense of victory over the ancien régime was imbued in the parade, and it was understood by all that the king was now fully at the service of the people. It was said the soldiers sang verses of O Richard, ô mon Roi!, an operatic song praising an imprisoned king and calling for his freedom. In the post-Bastille period, price inflation and severe shortages in Paris became commonplace, as did local incidents of violence in the marketplaces. Among their makeshift weaponry they dragged along several cannons taken from the Hôtel de Ville. They milled around the palace grounds with rumors abounding that the women's deputation had been duped – the queen would inevitably force the king to break any promises that had been made. 2018 © World Heritage Encyclopedia. On October 1st 1789, soldiers of the Royal Flanders Regiment arrived at Versailles from Douai after being summoned to strengthen the king’s royal bodyguard. [13][20], As they left, thousands of National Guardsmen who had heard the news were assembling at the Place de Grève. Date published: July 27, 2020 Most of Versailles was built by Louis XIV and reflected the grandeur of his absolutist reign. Or the... ...blicizes itself. World Heritage Encyclopedia is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization. Long live King Orléans! Womens March on Versailles, also known as the October March the October days or simply the March on Versailles, one of the earliest and most significant events of the French revolution. The mood of the people was joyous and optimistic, yet also triumphant and intimidating. Just as the ordinary ... ...nce the Faubourg Saint- Germain existed at all—which is to say, ever since Versailles 27 Balzac ceased to be the royal residence—the Faubourg, with s... ...shifted under his feet at every step; and when, at the end of a long day’s march, he lay down to sleep 43 Balzac on the ground, he had never been so ... and gave him new strength. Maillard returned to Paris with his status as a local hero made permanent. In March began among women in the marketplaces of Paris, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and shortage of bread. [53] The October journées thus effectively deprived the monarchist faction of significant representation in the Assembly[54] as most of these deputies retreated from the political scene; many, like Mounier, fled the country altogether. [18], At about one o'clock in the afternoon of 6 October 1789, the vast throng escorted the royal family and a complement of one hundred deputies back to the capital, this time with the armed National Guards leading the way. The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The Oc­to­ber March, The Oc­to­ber Days, or sim­ply The March on Versailles, was one of the ear­li­est and most sig­nif­i­cant events of the French Rev­o­lu­tion. The revolution's capacity for violence was as yet not fully realized. [40] By the first light of morning, an alliance of the national guards and the women was evident, and as the crowd's vigor was restored, their roughneck poissard clamoring resumed. It is impossible not to like this careless indifference and freedom from suspicion. [32], Lafayette, though initially acclaimed, found that he had tied himself too closely to the king. According to Duquesnoy’s account: “Imagine the surprise of many members of the [National] Assembly when some 20 fishwives entered, led by a reasonably well-dressed man called Maillard, who spoke on their behalf with great skill and in well educated French. France’s monarch and national government relocated to Paris and became subject to groups and forces within the capital. [44][45], Although the fighting ceased and the two commands of troops had cleared the palace, the mob was still everywhere outside. The Paris women were driven by famine; they and their children were hungry. The king heard their case and promised to take action to alleviate the food shortages in Paris. [60] Yet most of the Revolution's foremost histories describe any involvement of the Duke as ancillary to the action, efforts of opportunism that neither created nor defined the October march. Although it was a royal residence, Versailles was never closed to the public. They would start by attacking the Hôtel de Ville with a full 7-10 thousand people, taking bread and nearly burning the building down. As he spoke, the restless Parisians came pouring into the Assembly and sank exhausted on the deputies' benches. And then, just mayb... Full Text Search Details...s of, weeps, unpopular, at Dinner of Guards, courage of, Fifth October, at Versailles, shows her- self to people, and Louis at Tuileries, and the Lorr... ...alists leave, state of, in want, recruited, Revolutionary, fourteen armies on foot. “The October Days illustrate the delicate balance in the relationship between the people and the monarchy… Constitutional monarchy [was] the only political system really considered at this time, but even violent protestors showed no real hostility to the king’s role. It marked the end of the king's resistance to the tide of reform, and he made no further open attempts to push back the Revolution. On October 5, 1789, women had suffered enough injustice as a result of the economic crisis in France. Their stronghold was in Paris. [11] The idea of a march on Versailles was widespread, and was even discussed in the pages of the Mercure de France (5 September 1789). [42][43], The chaos continued as other royal guards were found and beaten; at least one more was killed and his head too appeared atop a pike. Versailles was not a single palace but a sprawling complex of buildings and outbuildings, manicured lawns and gardens, roads and decorative features. Some furniture, clothing and other royal belongings were carted from Versailles to the Tuileries. For more info, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. Historians have long debated which of these reasons was more significant or prevalent. Outside, in the cour de marbre (central courtyard), the soldiers' toasts and oaths of fealty to the king grew more demonstrative as the night wore on. Late in the evening, drunk soldiers were reportedly seen standing on tables, shouting and singing bawdy songs. [35] Yet, even as the crowd sang pleasantries about their "Good Papa", their violent mentality could not be misread; celebratory gunshots flew over the royal carriage and some marchers even carried pikes bearing the heads of the slaughtered Versailles guards. All this was probably harmless enough but the popular press in Paris seized on it nevertheless. [13], Following the mutiny of the French Guards a few hours before the storming of the Bastille, the only troops immediately available for the security of the palace at Versailles were the aristocratic Garde du Corps (Body Guard) and the Cent-Suisses (Hundred Swiss). The following testimony was given by one of the participants, a Madame Madelaine Glain: Louis XVI and his family had left Paris for Versailles earlier in the course of the French Revolution. Additional soldiers were mobilised to restore order and clear the palace of invaders. Even so, the royal court in Paris was much more austere. There was a bit more going on. [24] But it was the crudely decisive invasion of the palace itself that was most momentous; the attack removed forever the aura of invincibility that once cloaked the monarchy. AUSTRIAN Committee, at Tuil... ...ERTHIER, Intendant, fled, arrested and massacred. Hungry, fatigued, and bedraggled from the rain, they seemed to confirm that the siege was a simple demand for food. The next day, the crowd compelled the king, his family, and most of the French Assembly to return with them to Paris. October 5, 1789 Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Then bloody hell will break loose. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson Their carriages were accompanied by the crowd, the procession numbering between 30,000 and 40,000 people. King Louis XVI was officially welcomed to Paris with a respectful ceremony held by mayor Jean Sylvain Bailly. The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. The crown enforced strict regulations and b… [43] In a close brush with death, they barely escaped through the doorway in time. This action was simple and justified, for to be hungry is a terrible state. Many of Versailles’ artworks reinforced Louis’ royal absolutism, by extolling the strengths and virtues of kings. An illustration of the Women's March on Versailles, 5 October 1789, The revolutionary decrees passed by the Assembly in August 1789 culminated in, The women hailed by onlookers on their way to Versailles (illustration c. 1842), Lawsuit about the happenings of 6 October at Versailles; Châtelet Paris 1790, Significant civil and political events by year, Philip Mansel, page 129 "Pillars of Monarchy", ISBN 0-7043-2424-5, Richard Cobb, page 88 "The French Revolution - Voices From a Momentous Epoch", CN 8039, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, The French Revolution a History Volume Three, Memoirs of Louis XIV and His Court and of the Regency, The Duchesse de Langeais, With an Episode under the Terror, The Illustrious Gaudissart, A Passion in the Desert, And the Hidden Masterpiece. They sought the help and support of the Assembly. [29], When the crowd finally reached Versailles, it was met by another group that had assembled from the surrounding area. [21] The Marquis de Lafayette, in Paris as their commander-in-chief, discovered to his dismay that his soldiers were largely in favor of the march and were being egged on by agitators to join in. History plainly shows that the march of civilization across the world has been one long, greedy, grab... ...side of corruption. The women's march began three months after the storming of the Bastille, in the markets of Paris amid anger at the price of and scarcity of bread. During the October Days, as many as 30,000 people laid siege to Versailles and petitioned the king and the National Constituent Assembly. Like many of the revolution’s fateful journées, the October Days were triggered by the circulation of provocative rumours. At Versailles, the Assembly remained ignorant of most of the Paris events, but eminently aware that the Marshal de Broglie stood on the brink of unleashing a pro-Royalist coup to force the Assembly to adopt the order of 23 June and then to dissolve. 4. Some had more violent intentions, seeking retribution against the king’s soldiers or his wife, the much-despised Marie Antoinette. Many of the crowd were women from the unruly district of Faubourg Saint-Antoine; a sizeable number were veterans of the attack on the Bastille three months earlier. Versailles’ massive grounds were filled with statues, ornaments, grottoes and fountains. Three eyewitness accounts of the October Days (1789) All this took place honourably and peacefully – until some members were unwise enough and bold enough to leave their places to go and chat with the women, which led to some disorder. The demonstrators responded with a muted respect, and many even raised a cheer which the queen had not heard for quite a long time: "Vive la Reine! CONSTITUTION, French, completed, will not march, burst in pieces, new, of 1793. – The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. The buildings and grounds at Versailles were costly to maintain, requiring a staff of more than 2,000 people. [31] A few other deputies welcomed the marchers warmly, including Maximilien Robespierre who was still at that time a relatively obscure figure in politics. Amid this unlikely development, Lafayette cannily let the mob's fury drain away until, with dramatic timing and flair, he knelt reverently and kissed her hand. On October 6th Louis XVI appeared before the crowd and agreed to return to Paris. [42], Two guardsmen, Miomandre and Tardivet, each separately attempted to face down the crowd and were overpowered. The king became a virtual prisoner in the Tuileries – and in many respects, the revolution became a prisoner of Paris. Some suggested that the king and his ministers, having lost power to the National Constituent Assembly, had orchestrated the food shortage to starve the people into submission. One radical section of the crowd, comprised mainly of women from Faubourg Saint-Antoine, had been demanding stronger action since their arrival at Versailles.